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• Mongolia is located in North East Asia between Russia and China.

• It is the 18th largest country in the world, with territory of 1,566,500 Mongolia is 5 times larger than Italy in terms of territory. The border length is 8158 kilometer. If you walk 20 kilometers each day along the border, you would need 1 year and 40 days to come back where you have started from.

• Mongolia’s population is 2.7 million and population density is one of the lowest in the world.

• Mongolia is divided into 22 administrative prefectures called aymag and the capital city, Ulaanbaatar, which had independent administrative status. Aymags are further divided into soums. There are about 17 soums in each aymag. Each soum has 4-5 bags, which are the smallest administrative unit.

• Herders or nomads make up 20% of the population. 37% of the population lives in the capital city Ulaanbaatar. Rest of the population live in provincial central towns called “aymag” and their affiliated districts-“soum”.

• Mongolia is a Buddhist country. More than 90 percent of the Mongolians are Buddhists.

• Rural Mongolians rely heavily on livestock for their livelihood. There are 5 types of domesticated animals: sheep, goats, cattle and yaks, camels and the horses. In 2006, Mongolia livestock exceeded 34 million, which is about 13 times the population.

• Mongolia has harsh, dry continental climate. The annual rainfall is around 200 mm (8 inches).

July is the warmest month of summer, it is 15°, and 20° C in mountainous areas of Khangai region, 20° and 25° C in the steppes and the highest temperature is between 32° and 35° C in Khangai and 40° and 41° C in Gobi . Sometimes it reaches 50° C in Gobi .

January is the coldest winter month in Mongolia and the mean temperature is -35°C in Khangai mountain regions, -15°C in Gobi and -20°C and -25°C in the other parts of the country.

The difference of temperatures in the winter and in the summer is one of the highest in the world. Temperature fluctuates as much as 30°C in a single day during the spring and autumn. Most of Mongolia’s territory falls in semi-arid climate zone according to the Koppen climate classification.

• Mongolian territory is divided into six four soil and vegitation zones: High mountain zone, Taiga (forest) zone, Mountain Forest Steppe zone,  Steppe zone, Desert Steppe, Desert zone.

• Kalkha-Mongols constitute about four-fifths of the population. However, there are more than 40 ethnic minorities, who live in peace.The other major groups are The Kazakhs,  6% percent of the population and lives  mainly in Bayan-Ulgii province.

• Average altitude is 1580 m, with highest 4374 m at summit “Huiten” of Mount Tavan Bogd and with lowest 532m at Lake “Blue”

Highest mountains
1. Huiten peak /Tavan Bogd mountain/ 4374 m
2. Sukhbaatar peak/Munkhkhairkhan mountain/ 4208 m
3. Tsast mountain/Altai mountain range/ 4204 m
4. Tsast Bogd mountain/Sutai mountain range/ 4090 m
5. Khatuu mountain /Siilkhem mountain range/ 4029 m
6. Khukh serkh/Deluun mountain range/ 4019 m

The largest lakes
1. Uvs 3350 sq. km
2. Khuvsgul 2620 sq. km
3. Khar Us 1852 sq. km
4. Khyargas 1407 sq. km
5. Buir 615 sq. km

The longest rivers
1. Orkhon 1124 km
2. Kherlen 1090 km
3. Selenge 819 km
4. Tuul 808 km
5. Zavkhan 568 km
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